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MMM

This manual is for MMM version 2.


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1. Overview

MMM (Master-Master Replication Manager for MySQL) is a set of flexible scripts to perform monitoring/failover and management of MySQL Master-Master replication configurations (with only one node writable at any time). The toolset also has the ability to read balance standard master/slave configurations with any number of slaves, so you can use it to move virtual IP addresses around a group of servers depending on whether they are behind in replication. In addition to that, it also has scripts for data backups, resynchronization between nodes etc.


The main functionality is provided through the following three scripts:

mmm_mond

monitoring daemon which does all monitoring work and makes all decisions about roles moving and so on.

mmm_agentd

agent daemon which runs on each MySQL server and provides monitoring node with simple set of remote services.

mmm_control

simple script dedicated to management of the mmm_mond processes by commands.



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2. Typical use-cases

Typical use cases of MMM will be described in the following two sections.


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2.1 Two node setup

mmm-sample-setup-1 In two node master-master setup, MMM uses five IPs: single permanent IP for each node that is never changed, 2 reader IPs (read-only) and 1 writer IP (updates). Last three IPs are migrating between the nodes depending on node availability.

Normally (no replication failures, no replication delay etc) active master has 2 IPs (reader and writer), standby master - 1 IP (reader). In case of a failure, both - writer and reader roles migrate to the working node.


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2.2 Two masters + one/many slaves

mmm-sample-setup-2


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3. Requirements

For an MMM setup with n MySQL servers, you'll need

n + 1 hosts

One host for each MySQL server; one host for the MMM monitor.

2 * (n + 1) IPs

One IP for each host (see above); one IP for the writer role; n IPs for one reader role per host.

monitor user

A MySQL user with privileges REPLICATION CLIENT for MMM monitor.

agent user

A MySQL user with privileges SUPER, REPLICATION CLIENT, PROCESS for MMM agent.

replication user

A MySQL user with privileges REPLICATION SLAVE used for replication.

tools user

A MySQL user with privileges SUPER, REPLICATION CLIENT, RELOAD for MMM tools.


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3.1 Requirements - monitoring host


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3.2 Requirements - nodes

One should set read-only=1 in the configuration of all MySQL servers, MMM will change that to read-only=0 on the host with the active_master_role.


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3.3 Additional requirements for MMM tools

If you want to use the MMM tools (mmm_backup, mmm_restore, mmm_clone) you have to use LVM for the partition on which your MySQL databases and logs reside. Note: You'll need free physical extends for the snapshots undo space (see Estimating Undo Space needed for LVM Snapshot).


You'll also need the following perl modules:


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4. mmm_agentd - the agent

TODO short description


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5. mmm_mond - the monitor


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5.1 States

ONLINE

Host is running without any problems.

ADMIN_OFFLINE

host was set to offline manually.

HARD_OFFLINE

Host is offline (Check ping and/or mysql failed)

AWAITING_RECOVERY

Host is awaiting recovery

REPLICATION_DELAY

replication backlog is too big (Check rep_backlog failed)

REPLICATION_FAIL

replication threads are not running (Check rep_threads failed)


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5.2 Roles

There are two types of roles:

exclusive roles

Exclusive roles may only have one ip and are assigned to one host at a time. You may specify a preferred host, to which the role will always be moved, if it's online. Note: You can't move roles which are assigned to the preferred host, because they would be moved back to it immediately.

balanced roles

Balanced roles may have multiple ips. The ips will be balanced between the hosts, so that no host has two roles more than another host.

TODO describe active_master_role allow writes change master of all hosts with mode=slave to this host


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5.3 Status file

information about host state and roles ‘status_path


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5.4 Checks

mmm_mond performs four different checks on each host to determine if it is OK. These checks are:

ping

host is pingable

mysql

MySQL server on the host is alive

rep_threads

replication threads are running

rep_backlog

replication backlog is not too big


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5.5 Network check

mmm_mond has the ability to detect a non-functioning network connection. It regularly pings all ping_ips defined in the config. If at least one ip is reachable, the network is considered to be working.

Without working network connection mmm_mond will...

If the network connection doesn't work during startup, mmm_mond will delay startup until it's available again.


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5.6 Flapping

mmm_mond supports the detection of hosts that are "flapping". Flapping occurs if a host which is ONLINE changes its state to HARD_OFFLINE / REPLICATION_FAIL / REPLICATION_DELAY too often and each time gets switched back to ONLINE (because of auto_set_online or because it has been down for less than 60 seconds). This may lead to roles getting switched between hosts very often.

To prevent this mmm_mond has a built in flap-detection which can be tuned in the configuration file. If a host goes down for more than flap_count times within flap_duration seconds it is considered as flapping and will not be set ONLINE automatically. It will stay in state AWAITING_RECOVERY until it gets set online (with mmm_control set_online host).

If auto_set_online is > 0, flapping hosts will automatically be set to ONLINE after flap_duration seconds.


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5.7 Modes


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5.7.1 Active mode

The monitor will remove roles from failed hosts and assign them to other hosts automatically.


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5.7.2 Manual mode

The monitor will only distribute balanced roles across the hosts, but will not remove roles from failed hosts automatically. You can remove roles from failed hosts manually with move_role.


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5.7.3 Wait mode

Like MANUAL mode, but mode will be changed into ACTIVE mode when both master hosts are ONLINE or after wait_for_other_master seconds have elapsed.


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5.7.4 Passive mode

In passive mode the monitor doesn't change roles, update the status file nor send anything to agents. In passive mode you can modify roles (unclean) with set_ip - the changes won't be applied until the monitor is switched to ACTIVE or MANUAL mode with set_active or set_manual. Passive mode will be entered if conflicting roles are detected during startup. You should then analyze the situation, fix the role information (if needed) and switch into ACTIVE or MANUAL mode. It also can be entered manually with set_passive.


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5.8 Startup


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5.9 Role transition


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5.9.1 Standard role


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5.9.2 Active master role


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5.10 Kill host functionality

If a host goes down and the agent on it can't be reached, the monitor executes a "kill host"-binary if present. You have to provide a custom binary for this which takes the hostname as first argument and the state of check ping (1 - ok; 0 - not ok) as second argument. This binary could for example:

The default location for this binary is ‘bin_path/monitor/kill_host’. This may be changed via the variable kill_host_bin in the monitor section of the configuration.


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6. mmm_control - controlling the monitor

The monitor daemon may be controlled with the help of mmm_control. If you have multiple clusters, you should always specify the name of the cluster you want to work with (i.e. to check C1 status, use "mmm_control @C1 show"). Otherwise - if you have only one MMM cluster, it can be used without cluster name.


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6.1 help

Show help message.


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6.2 ping

Ping the monitor deamon to check if it's still alive.

 
# mmm_control ping
OK: Pinged successfully!

When the monitor is down:

 
# mmm_control ping
ERROR: Can't connect to monitor daemon!

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6.3 show

Show the current cluster status. See States for an explanation of the different node states.

 
# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.51)
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/AWAITING_RECOVERY. Roles:
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.52), reader(192.168.0.53)

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6.4 checks [host|all [check|all]]

Show information about the specified/all check(s) for the specified/all host(s).

 
# mmm_control checks
mmm-master1  ping         [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master1  mysql        [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master1  rep_threads  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master1  rep_backlog  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK: Backlog is null
mmm-master2  ping         [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master2  mysql        [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master2  rep_threads  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master2  rep_backlog  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK: Backlog is null
       
# mmm_control checks mmm-master1
mmm-master1  ping         [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master1  mysql        [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master1  rep_threads  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK
mmm-master1  rep_backlog  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK: Backlog is null
       
# mmm_control checks mmm-master1 rep_backlog
mmm-master1  rep_backlog  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK: Backlog is null

# mmm_control checks all rep_backlog
mmm-master1  rep_backlog  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK: Backlog is null 
mmm-master2  rep_backlog  [last change: 2010/02/11 12:43:16]  OK: Backlog is null

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6.5 set_online host

set_online is used to recover a node from a failure when it's state is AWAITING_RECOVERY or ADMIN_OFFLINE. In the following example, the host db2 was rebooted. Here's the cluster status:

 
# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.51)
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/AWAITING_RECOVERY. Roles:
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.52), reader(192.168.0.53)

All roles have been moved to hosts db1 and db3 as db2 has failed. Now that it's recovered, we should set it online:

 
# mmm_control set_online db2
OK: State of 'db2' changed to ONLINE. Now you can wait some time and check its new roles!

# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.51)
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.52)
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.53)

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6.6 set_offline host

set_offline is used to bring a node down manually for maintenance. This will remove all roles and stop replication.

 
# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.51)
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.52)
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.53)

# mmm_control set_offline db1
OK: State of 'db1' changed to ADMIN_OFFLINE. Now you can wait some time and check all roles!

mon:~# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ADMIN_OFFLINE. Roles:
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.52)
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.51), reader(192.168.0.53)

set_online is used to bring the node back online again. See set_online host.


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6.7 mode

Print current mode. In the following example, the monitor is running in ACTIVE mode:

 
# mmm_control mode
ACTIVE

Here the monitor is in PASSIVE mode:

 
# mmm_control mode
PASSIVE

See Modes.


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6.8 set_active

Switch the monitor into ACTIVE mode:

 
# mmm_control set_active
OK: Switched into active mode.

See Modes.


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6.9 set_manual

Switch the monitor into MANUAL mode:

 
# mmm_control set_manual
OK: Switched into manual mode.

See Modes.


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6.10 set_passive

Switch the monitor into PASSIVE mode:

 
# mmm_control set_passive
OK: Switched into passive mode.

See Modes.


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6.11 move_role role host

Used to move an exclusive role between the cluster nodes. This command is not available in PASSIVE mode. Lets assume the following situation:

 
# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.51)
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.52)
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.53)

We use move_role to move the role writer to host db1:

 
# mmm_control move_role writer db1
OK: Role 'writer' has been moved from 'db2' to 'db1'. Now you can wait some time and check new roles info!

# mmm_control show
  db1(192.168.0.31) master/ONLINE. Roles: writer(192.168.0.50), reader(192.168.0.51)
  db2(192.168.0.32) master/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.52)
  db3(192.168.0.33) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.53)

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6.12 move_role --force role host

Can be used to move the active_master_role to a host with state REPLICATION_FAIL or REPLICATION_DELAY. Use this with caution! This command is not available in PASSIVE mode.


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6.13 set_ip ip host

set_ip can be used to manipulate the roles in PASSIVE mode. The changes won't be applied until the monitor is switched into ACTIVE or manual mode via set_active or set_manual.


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7. Configuration


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7.1 Config files

Config files may resist in ‘/etc’, ‘/etc/mmm’ or ‘/etc/mysql-mmm’. ‘/etc/mysql-mmm’ should be preferred.

Program

Filename

mmm_agentd

mmm_agent.conf

mmm_mond

mmm_mon.conf’ or ‘mmm_mon_CLUSTER.conf

mmm_control

mmm_mon.conf’ or ‘mmm_mon_CLUSTER.conf

mmm_backup

mmm_tools.conf

mmm_clone

mmm_tools.conf

mmm_restore

mmm_tools.conf


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7.2 Configuration syntax


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7.2.1 Comments

Lines which begin with the hash character # are considered comments, and are ignored. Comments may not be included on a line after a configuration directive. White space occuring before comments are ignored.

 
# This is a comment
debug	1 # this is no comment

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7.2.2 Variables

asdsadasd

 
debug   0

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7.2.3 Specifying multiple values

For some variables you may specify multiple values seperated by a comma:

 
ips     192.168.0.51, 192.168.0.52, 192.168.0.53

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7.2.4 Sections

The configuration is divided into two kinds of sections: unique and named.


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7.2.4.1 Unique sections

Unique sections ... TODO

 
<monitor>
    ip     127.0.0.1
</monitor>

It is also possible to define empty unique sections:

 
<socket/>

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7.2.4.2 Named sections

Named sections ... TODO

 
<host db1>
    ip     192.168.0.31
</host>

You may also define empty named sections:

 
<check mysql/>

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7.2.4.3 Default sections

Values assigned in sections named default will be used as default values for all other sections of this type.

 
# Default mode of all hosts is 'slave'
<host default>
    mode	slave
</host>

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7.2.5 Includes

It is possible to split up the configuration into several files and include them via include.

 
include	common.conf

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7.3 Configuration variables


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7.3.1 Global variables


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7.3.2 monitor section

The monitor section is required by mmm_mond and mmm_control.


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7.3.3 host sections


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7.3.4 role sections

This section defines what roles are in the cluster and which IPs will be used for each role. Since roles are moved among servers each server needs an IP (for the monitor to talk to it) and each role needs an IP.


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7.3.5 check sections


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7.3.6 socket section


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7.3.7 copy_method sections


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8. Logging


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8.1 Logging config files

MMM uses Log4perl for logging, so the logging abilities are very flexible. If the default logging configuration doesn't fit your needs you can create a config file which may resist in ‘/etc’, ‘/etc/mmm’ or ‘/etc/mysql-mmm’. ‘/etc/mysql-mmm’ should be preferred.

The name of the file depends on the program you want to create it for:

Program

Filename

mmm_agentd

mmm_agent_log.conf

mmm_mond

mmm_mon_log.conf’ or ‘mmm_mon_log_CLUSTER.conf

mmm_control

mmm_mon_log.conf’ or ‘mmm_mon_log_CLUSTER.conf

mmm_backup

-

mmm_clone

-

mmm_restore

-


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8.2 Log4perl sample configuration

Here is the default logging configuration:

 
log4perl.logger = INFO, LogFile

log4perl.appender.LogFile = Log::Log4perl::Appender::File
log4perl.appender.LogFile.Threshold = INFO 
log4perl.appender.LogFile.filename = /var/log/mysql-mmm/progam.info
log4perl.appender.LogFile.recreate = 1
log4perl.appender.LogFile.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.LogFile.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %5p %m%n

In addition to that, if debug mode is enabled:

 
log4perl.logger = DEBUG, ScreenLog, LogFile
log4perl.appender.ScreenLog = Log::Log4perl::Appender::Screen
log4perl.appender.ScreenLog.stderr = 0
log4perl.appender.ScreenLog.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.ScreenLog.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %5p %m%n

It is also possible to log into multiple files (separated by severity) or let MMM send you mails (this was the default logging configuration in versions below 2.1.1):

 
log4perl.logger = INFO, FileInfo, FileWarn, FileError, FileFatal, MailFatal

log4perl.appender.FileInfo = Log::Log4perl::Appender::File
log4perl.appender.FileInfo.Threshold = INFO 
log4perl.appender.FileInfo.filename = /var/log/mysql-mmm/progam.info
log4perl.appender.FileInfo.recreate = 1
log4perl.appender.FileInfo.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.FileInfo.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %5p %m%n

log4perl.appender.FileWarn = Log::Log4perl::Appender::File
log4perl.appender.FileWarn.Threshold = WARN 
log4perl.appender.FileWarn.filename = /var/log/mysql-mmm/progam.warn
log4perl.appender.FileWarn.recreate  = 1
log4perl.appender.FileWarn.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.FileWarn.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %5p %m%n

log4perl.appender.FileError = Log::Log4perl::Appender::File
log4perl.appender.FileError.Threshold = ERROR 
log4perl.appender.FileError.filename = /var/log/mysql-mmm/progam.error
log4perl.appender.FileError.recreate = 1
log4perl.appender.FileError.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.FileError.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %5p %m%n

log4perl.appender.FileFatal = Log::Log4perl::Appender::File
log4perl.appender.FileFatal.Threshold = FATAL 
log4perl.appender.FileFatal.filename = /var/log/mysql-mmm/progam.fatal
log4perl.appender.FileFatal.recreate = 1
log4perl.appender.FileFatal.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.FileFatal.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %5p %m%n

log4perl.appender.MailFatal = Log::Dispatch::Email::MailSend
log4perl.appender.MailFatal.Threshold = FATAL 
log4perl.appender.MailFatal.to = root
log4perl.appender.MailFatal.buffered = 0
log4perl.appender.MailFatal.subject = FATAL error in progam
log4perl.appender.MailFatal.layout = PatternLayout
log4perl.appender.MailFatal.layout.ConversionPattern = %d %m%n

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Index

Jump to:   A   C   F   H   K   L   M   N   O   R   S   T   U   V  
Index Entry Section

A
Agent4. mmm_agentd - the agent

C
checks6.4 checks [host|all [check|all]]
Checks5.4 Checks
Comments7.2.1 Comments
Config files7.1 Config files
Configuration7. Configuration
Configuration syntax7.2 Configuration syntax

F
Flapping, flap detection5.6 Flapping

H
help6.1 help

K
Kill host functionality5.10 Kill host functionality

L
Logging8. Logging
Logging config files8.1 Logging config files

M
mmm_agentd4. mmm_agentd - the agent
mmm_control6. mmm_control - controlling the monitor
mmm_mond5. mmm_mond - the monitor
Modes5.7 Modes
Monitor5. mmm_mond - the monitor

N
Named sections7.2.4.2 Named sections
Network check5.5 Network check

O
Overview1. Overview

R
Requirements3. Requirements
Role transition5.9 Role transition
Roles5.2 Roles

S
Sections7.2.4 Sections
set_offline6.6 set_offline host
set_online6.5 set_online host
show6.3 show
Startup5.8 Startup
States5.1 States
Status file5.3 Status file

T
typical use-cases2. Typical use-cases

U
Unique Sections7.2.4.1 Unique sections

V
Variables7.2.2 Variables

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